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Parallel and Concurrent Programming in Haskell

  • Posted on February 14, 2017 at 1:35 pm

As one of the developers of the Glasgow Haskell Compiler (GHC) for almost 15 years, I have seen Haskell grow from a niche research language into a rich and thriving ecosystem. I spent a lot of that time working on GHC’s support for parallelism and concurrency. One of the first things I did to GHC in 1997 was to rewrite its runtime system, and a key decision we made at that time was to build concurrency right into the core of the system rather than making it an optional extra or an add-on library. I like to think this decision was founded upon shrewd foresight, but in reality it had as much to do with the fact that we found a way to reduce the overhead of concurrency to near zero (previously it had been on the order of 2%; we’ve always been performance-obsessed). Nevertheless, having concurrency be non-optional meant that it was always a first-class part of the implementation, and I’m sure that this decision was instrumental in bringing about GHC’s solid and lightning-fast concurrency support.

Haskell has a long tradition of being associated with parallelism. To name just a few of the projects, there was the pH variant of Haskell derived from the Id language, which was designed for parallelism, the GUM system for running parallel Haskell programs on multiple machines in a cluster, and the GRiP system: a complete computer architecture designed for running parallel functional programs. All of these happened well before the current multicore revolution, and the problem was that this was the time when Moore’s law was still giving us ever-faster computers. Parallelism was difficult to achieve, and didn’t seem worth the effort when ordinary computers were getting exponentially faster.

Around 2004, we decided to build a parallel implementation of the GHC runtime system for running on shared memory multiprocessors, something that had not been done before. This was just before the multicore revolution. Multiprocessor machines were fairly common, but multicores were still around the corner. Again, I’d like to think the decision to tackle parallelism at this point was enlightened foresight, but it had more to do with the fact that building a shared-memory parallel implementation was an interesting research problem and sounded like fun. Haskell’s purity was essential—it meant that we could avoid some of the overheads of locking in the runtime system and garbage collector, which in turn meant that we could reduce the overhead of using parallelism to a low-single-digit percentage. Nevertheless, it took more research, a rewrite of the scheduler, and a new parallel garbage collector before the implementation was really usable and able to speed up a wide range of programs. The paper I presented at the International Conference on Functional Programming (ICFP) in 2009 marked the turning point from an interesting prototype into a usable tool.

All of this research and implementation was great fun, but good-quality resources for teaching programmers how to use parallelism and concurrency in Haskell were conspicuously absent. Over the last couple of years, I was fortunate to have had the opportunity to teach two summer school courses on parallel and concurrent programming in Haskell: one at the Central European Functional Programming (CEFP) 2011 summer school in Budapest, and the other the CEA/EDF/INRIA 2012 Summer School at Cadarache in the south of France. In preparing the materials for these courses, I had an excuse to write some in-depth tutorial matter for the first time, and to start collecting good illustrative examples. After the 2012 summer school I had about 100 pages of tutorial, and thanks to prodding from one or two people (see the Acknowledgments), I decided to turn it into a book. At the time, I thought I was about 50% done, but in fact it was probably closer to 25%. There’s a lot to say! I hope you enjoy the results.

Audience

You will need a working knowledge of Haskell, which is not covered in this book. For that, a good place to start is an introductory book such as Real World Haskell (O’Reilly), Programming in Haskell (Cambridge University Press), Learn You a Haskell for Great Good! (No Starch Press), or Haskell: The Craft of Functional Programming (Addison-Wesley).

How to Read This Book

The main goal of the book is to get you programming competently with Parallel and Concurrent Haskell. However, as you probably know by now, learning about programming is not something you can do by reading a book alone. This is why the book is deliberately practical: There are lots of examples that you can run, play with, and extend. Some of the chapters have suggestions for exercises you can try out to get familiar with the topics covered in that chapter, and I strongly recommend that you either try a few of these, or code up some of your own ideas.

As we explore the topics in the book, I won’t shy away from pointing out pitfalls and parts of the system that aren’t perfect. Haskell has been evolving for over 20 years but is moving faster today than at any point in the past. So we’ll encounter inconsistencies and parts that are less polished than others. Some of the topics covered by the book are very recent developments: Chapters 4, 5, 6, and pass:[14 cover frameworks that were developed in the last few years.

The book consists of two mostly independent parts: Part I and Part II. You should feel free to start with either part, or to flip between them (i.e., read them concurrently!). There is only one dependency between the two parts: Chapter 13 will make more sense if you have read Part I first, and in particular before reading “The ParIO monad”, you should have read Chapter 4.

While the two parts are mostly independent from each other, the chapters should be read sequentially within each part. This isn’t a reference book; it contains running examples and themes that are developed across multiple chapters.

Princeton Presents Duo Monitor 17 Inches White-Black With 4 Backlit That Conserve Electricity Consumption As much as 25%

  • Posted on February 14, 2017 at 4:15 am

Princeton Presents Duo Monitor 17 Inches White-Black With 4 Backlit That Conserve Electricity Consumption As much as 25%
LG Electronics Japan likely will soon add to the power line of ultra-wide LCD monitors as the flagship model of the new duo will Dihadirkannya in the near future.
Both models of 29-inch LCD monitor LG is an ultra-wide shared a cinematic 21:9 aspect ratio, accompanied by a support that can be adjusted height. LG 29EA73-P has a size of 699.7 × 387.0 × 197.2mm and weighs 5.9kg, while the LG 29EB73-P has a size of 699.7 × 395.3 × 225.0mm and weighs 6.9kg.
Despite having the size and weight of different devices, the LG monitor both models are equally supported by screen resolution 2560 × 1080 pixels with 16.7 million colors display. Not to mention the multiple input terminals that contributed equally complementary, ie: DVI-D (Dual-Link), HDMI × 2 (MHL × 1), Display Port, USB hub (Up × 1/DownUSB3.0 × 2, USB2 .0 × 1), Audio input.
Besides compatible with MHL, there are two models have the same 7W +7 W stereo speakers built-in and 4-Screen Split function that can divide the screen into four segments.
Subject availability alone, LG 29EA73-P will be released in early August 2013, while LG 29EB73-P in early September.

DataCore Software Builds on Software-Defined Storage Momentum and Names Paul Murphy as Vice President of Worldwide Marketing

  • Posted on February 14, 2017 at 1:00 am

DataCore Software, the premier provider of storage virtualization software, today announced the appointment of Paul Murphy as the vice president of worldwide marketing. Murphy will oversee DataCore’s demand generation, inside sales and strategic marketing efforts needed to expand and accelerate the company’s growth and presence in the storage and virtualization sectors.  He brings to DataCore a proven track-record and a deep understanding of virtualization, storage technologies and the pivotal forces impacting customers in today’s ‘software-defined’ world. Murphy will drive the company’s marketing organization and programs to fuel sales for DataCore’s acclaimed storage virtualization software solution, SANsymphony™- V.

“Our software solutions have been successfully deployed at thousands of sites around the world and now our priority is to reach out to a broader range of organizations that don’t yet realize the economic and productivity benefits they can achieve through the adoption of storage virtualization and SANsymphony-V,” said DataCore Software’s Chief Operating Officer, Steve Houck. “Murphy brings to the company a fresh strategic marketing perspective, the ability to simplify our messaging, new ways to energize our outbound marketing activities and the drive to expand our visibility and brand recognition around the world.”

With nearly 15 years of experience in the technology industry, Murphy possesses a diverse range of skills in areas including engineering, services, sales and marketing, which will be instrumental in overseeing DataCore’s marketing activities around the globe. He was previously Director Americas SMB Sales and Worldwide Channel Development Manager at VMware, where he developed go-to-market strategies and oversaw both direct and inside channel sales teams in both domestic and international markets.

Prior to that, Murphy was senior product marketing manager at NetApp, focusing on backup and recovery solutions and their Virtual Tape Library product line. In this role, Murphy led business development activities, sales training, compensation programs and joint-marketing campaigns. An excellent communicator, he has been a keynote speaker at numerous industry events, trade shows, end-user seminars, sales training events, partner/reseller events and webcasts. Before moving into sales and marketing, Murphy had a successful career in engineering.

“The timing is perfect. DataCore has just updated its SANsymphony-V storage virtualization platform and it is well positioned to take advantage of the paradigm shift and acceptance of software-defined storage infrastructures,” said Murphy. “After doing the market research and getting feedback from numerous customers, it is clear to me that there is a large degree of pent-up customer demand. Needless to say, I’m eager to spread the word on DataCore’s value proposition and make a difference in this exciting and critical role.”

About DataCore Software

DataCore Software develops storage virtualization software leveraged in virtual and physical IT environments to obtain high availability, fast performance and maximum utilization from storage. DataCore’s SANsymphony-V storage hypervisor is a comprehensive, yet hardware-independent solution which fundamentally changes the economics of provisioning, replicating and protecting storage for large enterprises and small to midsize businesses. For additional information, visit the DataCore website at or call (877) 780-5111.

DataCore, the DataCore logo and SANsymphony are trademarks or registered trademarks of DataCore Software Corporation. Other DataCore product or service names or logos referenced herein are trademarks of DataCore Software Corporation. All other products, services and company names mentioned herein may be trademarks of their respective owners.